Create a keystore file to store the server's private key and self-signed certificate by executing the following command: This means that the data being sent is encrypted by one side, transmitted, then decrypted by the other side before processing. This is a two-way process, meaning that both the server AND the browser encrypt all traffic before sending out data. This means that during your initial attempt to communicate with a web server over a secure connection, that server will present your web browser with a set of credentials, in the form of a "Certificate", as proof the site is who and what it claims to be.
The most important aspect is there must be a valid DNS entry for the virtual host, otherwise a client won't be able to send the proper request to the server.
Using SSL Certificates Sending usernames and passwords in cleartext over the Internet risks the possibility that they may be intercepted, also doing online banking or other financial transactions using clear text is a major gamble that your details will be captured.
By encrypting our communication so that only the user and the server are able to access the information, we stand a far greater chance of ensuring our details will apache rewrite all to ssl be disclosed to some unknown third parties. The Apache server utilises the Secure Sockets Layer SSL to create a secure link between itself and the connecting web brower, so that any information being passed is hidden from view.
This does not stop any data from being captured, but it changes the information using cryptographic algorithms which would take an attacker an awfully long time to decrypt. There are a few points you need to be aware of before implementing SSL certificates: SSL uses Public Key asymmetric Cryptography there are two keys - public and private You need to keep your private key safe someone could impersonate you if they have your key SSL communicates to the server through TCP port Name based virtual hosts can not use SSL only one certificate for the main site Some countries do not allow the use of cryptography be careful where you employ it You need to read MUCH more than this howto to fully understand SSL Apache uses the SSL module which in-turn accesses the OpenSSL libraries needed to implement the cryptographic mechanisms.
Being a module, the configuration file is located in a separate area from the main configuration. The private key must be kept secure, while the public key can be given to anyone that needs it, thats why its called the public key.
Now that we are going to be making cryptographic keys, we need a secure environment in which to create and store them. The following is suitable for a home environment. This following command creates a private key for the server.
It also creates a certificate signing request file which contains a copy of your public key and some personal details that identify you and the server.
If your web site is going to be used to offer public services or e-commerce applications, the digital certificate should be signed by a proper Certifying Authority CA.
The contents of the "certsignreq. What you are about to enter is what is called a Distinguished Name or a DN. There are quite a few fields but you can leave some blank For some fields there will be a default value, If you enter '.
Miles Brennan Organizational Unit Name eg, section : Home Linux Server Common Name eg, your name or your server's hostname : The servers name inside the certificate should be the fully qualified hostname that a user is connecting to, otherwise the web browser will throw the user a warning message.
If the servers name is galaxy. If you intend on using SSL simply for your own use, and only your friends and family are going to connect, then you can create your own self-signed digital certificate for this purpose; you don't need a CA signed cert file.
Using your own self-signed digital certificate causes the browser to query the certificate when a user connects to the website, the certificate must be manually accepted before the user can proceed.
In this example we are creating a self-signed certificate with a five year life -days The original private key that was created used a passphrase to provide it with extra protection in case someone was to gain physical access to the key file. When the Apache server starts, it asks for the passphrase for the private key; this extra precaution stops someone being able to impersonate your website if they get a copy of your private key.
If the server needs to be restarted and no one is available to enter the passphrase for the server, then it will simply wait and the server will not start. This passphrase checking can be removed using the following sequence of commands, remember to secure the file so only the root user can access it.
After the keys and certificate have been prepared, they can be copied across to the location where the Apache server will load them automatically at runtime.
If you configured your server with a self-signed certificate as a temporary measure, then the temporary certificate can be easily replaced with the real one when it is returned from the CA.
If your private key file is ever compromised or lost, you will need to regenerate new keys starting from step one again.What causes this? If a request is made to apache to resume a file at a specific point by using the Range property in the request that contains numerous ranges apache will need to allocate increasing amounts of memory to service the request.
Turn on Apache. Open Terminal by clicking on the magnifying glass at the top right corner of your screen and searching for Terminal; Type sudo apachectl start and press enter; Open Safari (or your browser of choice), type localhost in the address bar, and press enter.
I'm trying to force SSL (https) on an SVN repository served by mod_dav_svn. Here's what I have: DAV svn SVNPath /var/repo/projectname Require valid-user. I need to force all requests regardless of what they are to timberdesignmag.com Unfortunately everything I have tried has not worked properly.
The following seems to me like it should work but it doesn't. Logging. mod_rewrite offers detailed logging of its actions at the trace1 to trace8 log levels.
The log level can be set specifically for mod_rewrite using the LogLevel directive: Up to level debug, no actions are logged, while trace8 means that practically all actions are logged. A practical guide to secure and harden Apache Web Server.
1. Introduction. The Web Server is a crucial part of web-based applications. Apache Web Server is often placed at the edge of the network hence it becomes one of the most vulnerable services to attack.