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The design flow for an SoC aims to develop this hardware and software at the same time, also known as architectural co-design. Most SoCs are developed from pre-qualified hardware component IP core specifications for the hardware elements and execution unitscollectively "blocks", described above, together with software device drivers that may control their operation.
Of particular importance are the protocol stacks that drive industry-standard interfaces like USB. The hardware blocks are put together using computer-aided design tools, specifically electronic design automation tools; the software modules are integrated using a software integrated development environment.
Once the architecture of the SoC has been defined, any new hardware elements are written in an abstract hardware description language termed register transfer level RTL which defines the circuit behavior, or synthesized into RTL from a high level language through high-level synthesis.
These elements are connected together in a hardware description language to create the full SoC design. The logic specified to connect these components and convert between possibly different interfaces provided by different vendors is called glue logic.
Functional verification and Signoff electronic design automation Chips are verified for logical correctness before being sent to a semiconductor foundry. Bugs found in the verification stage are reported to the designer.
Traditionally, engineers have employed simulation acceleration, emulation or prototyping on reprogrammable hardware to verify and debug hardware and software for SoC designs prior to the finalization of the design, known as tape-out. Both technologies, however, operate slowly, on the order of MHz, which may be significantly slower — up to times slower — than the SoC's operating frequency.
This is used to debug hardware, firmware and software interactions across multiple FPGAs with capabilities similar to a logic analyzer.
In parallel, the hardware elements are grouped and passed through a process of logic synthesisduring which performance constraints, such as operational frequency and expected signal delays, are applied.
This generates an output known as a netlist describing the design as a physical circuit and its interconnections. These netlists are combined with the glue logic connecting the components to produce the schematic description of the SoC as a circuit which can be printed onto a chip.
This process is known as place and route and precedes tape-out in the event that the SoCs are produced as application-specific integrated circuits ASIC. Optimization goals[ edit ] Systems-on-chip must optimize power usearea on diecommunication, positioning for locality between modular units and other factors.
Optimization is necessarily a design goal of systems-on-chip. If optimization was not necessary, the engineers would use a multi-chip module architecture without accounting for the area utilization, power consumption or performance of the system to the same extent.
Common optimization targets for system-on-chip designs follow, with explanations of each. In general, optimizing any of these quantities may be a hard combinatorial optimization problem, and can indeed be NP-hard fairly easily.
Therefore, sophisticated optimization algorithms are often required and it may be practical to use approximation algorithms or heuristics in some cases. Additionally, most SoC designs contain multiple variables to optimize simultaneouslyso Pareto efficient solutions are sought after in SoC design.
Oftentimes the goals of optimizing some of these quantities are directly at odds, further adding complexity to design optimization of systems-on-chip and introducing trade-offs in system design.Unit 6: Assignment Lisa Bowser Kaplan University CJ Forensic Fingerprint Analysis Essay about Cj Fingerprint Analysis Unit 7 Learning Activity I chose two glasses for this project.
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