These attractions lead city to grow at a rate that become difficult to manage. Essentially, undue presence is exerted on the existing public utilities while services are extended legally and illegally to the unplanned new areas. So, it seems that the more utility services are provided, the more they are demanded.
Message notifying an operator or administrator of a network problem.
See also event and trap. A-law is used primarily in European telephone networks and is similar to the North American mu-law standard.
See also companding and mu-law. Algorithm A set of rules and decision structures for actions in a specifically defined set of circumstances. Alias A file whose sole purpose is to represent another file. Alignment errors are usually caused by frame damage due Origin of osi model collisions.
All-rings Explorer Packet See all-routes explorer packet.
All-routes Explorer Explorer Packet packet that traverses an entire SRB network, following all possible paths to a specific destination. Sometimes called all-rings explorer packet, See also explorer packet, local explorer packet, and spanning explorer packet.
AppleTalk Low Overhead Encapsulation. Alphanumeric Referring to a group of printable characters that includes the letters of the alphabet in both upper and lower case, the numerals plus a limited group of additional symbols and punctuation marks.
Modulation technique whereby information is conveyed through the amplitude of the carrier signal. Ambient Referring to a set of conditions that exist independently of the system of interest. AMI Alternate mark inversion. Line-code type used on T1 and E1 circuits. In AMI, zeros are represented by 01 during each bit cell, and ones are represented by 11 or 00, alternately, during each bit cell.
AMI requires that the sending device maintain ones density. Ones density is not maintained independent of the data stream.
Sometimes called binary coded alternate mark inversion. See also ones density. A standard unit of measurement for electrical current flow.
Amplitude In the terminology of wave motion, the height of the wave. Amplitude is usually measured from a reference point of 0. In electrical waves, amplitude is typically expressed in volts. Analog Referring to a system or component that uses a system of measurement, response or storage in which values are expressed a s a magnitude using a continuous scale of measurement.
Analog Transmission Signal transmission over wires or through the air in which information is conveyed through variation of some combination of signal amplitude, frequency, and phase.
Anomaly An unusual instance or circumstance. The principle group in the US. A system of higher- level protocols used for the transmission of data and authentication between applications. APaRT recognizes specific data link layer encapsulation packet types and, when these packet types are transferred from one medium to another, translates them into the native format of the destination device.
A set of tools and procedures provided by the programmer of an application so that other programmers can control, exchange data with, or extend the functionality of an application. Apollo Domain Proprietary network protocol suite developed by Apollo Computer for communication on proprietary Apollo networks.
IBM SNA system software that allows high-speed communication between programs on different computers in a distributed computing environment.
APPC establishes and tears down connections between communicating programs, and consists of two interfaces, a programming interface and a data-exchange interface. The former replies to requests from programs requiring communication; the latter establishes sessions between programs. See also LU 6.
AppleScript A programming language that can call tasks within Macintosh applications. Application An independently executable set of algorithms and data structures that perform a specific set of functions.
This layer provides services to application processes such as electronic mail, file transfer, and terminal emulation that are outside of the OSI model.SADDLING THE GAITED HORSE.
Cordia Pearson. Society of Master Saddlers Qualified Saddle Fitter. Looking for a horse who won’t turn your back into a corkscrew? 4 5 n OPTICAL CHARACTERISTICS Responsivity, R The responsivity of a silicon photodiode is a measure of the sensitivity to light, and it is defined as the ratio of the photocurrent IP to the incident light power P at a given wavelength.
A AAC Autoclaved Aerated Concrete AAFA Australian Assembly of Fire Authorities AAIB Air Accidents Investigation Board ABC Alarms By Carrier ABCB Australian Building. Lists of numerous resources supporting both X3D Graphics and Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML). Application Layer and Applications - The Interface Between the Networks.
OSI and TCP/IP Model. The Open Systems Interconnection reference model is a layered, abstract representation created as a guideline for network protocol design. Traditional SNA Environments. SNA was developed in the s with an overall structure that parallels the OSI reference model.
With SNA, a mainframe running Advanced Communication Facility/Virtual Telecommunication Access Method (ACF/VTAM) serves as the hub of an SNA network.