The function of nervous system is to coordinate the activities of our body. It is the control system for all our actions, thinking and behaviour. The nervous system helps all other systems of our body to work together.
By the end of this section, you will be able to: A neuron can be compared to an electrical wire—it transmits a signal from one place to another. Glia can be compared to the workers at the electric company who make sure wires go to the right places, maintain the wires, and take down wires that are broken.
Although glia have been compared to workers, recent evidence suggests that also usurp some of the signaling functions of neurons. There is great diversity in the types of neurons and glia that are present in different parts of the nervous system. There are four major types of neurons, and they share several important cellular components.
Neurons The nervous system of the common laboratory fly, Drosophila melanogastercontains aroundneurons, the same number as a lobster. This number compares to 75 million in the mouse and million in the octopus.
A human brain contains around 86 billion neurons. Despite these very different numbers, the nervous systems of these animals control many of the same behaviors—from basic reflexes to more complicated behaviors like finding food and courting mates.
The ability of neurons to communicate with each other as well as with other types of cells underlies all of these behaviors. Most neurons share the same cellular components.
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But neurons are also highly specialized—different types of neurons have different sizes and shapes that relate to their functional roles. Parts of a neuron Like other cells, each neuron has a cell body that contains a nucleus, smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, mitochondria, and other cellular components.
Neurons also contain unique structures, illustrated in [link] for receiving and sending the electrical signals that make neuronal communication possible. Dendrites are tree-like structures that extend away from the cell body to receive messages from other neurons at specialized junctions called synapses.
Although some neurons do not have any dendrites, some types of neurons have multiple dendrites. Dendrites can have small protrusions called dendritic spines, which further increase surface area for possible synaptic connections.
Once a signal is received by the dendrite, it then travels passively to the cell body. An axon is a tube-like structure that propagates the integrated signal to specialized endings called axon terminals. These terminals in turn synapse on other neurons, muscle, or target organs.
Chemicals released at axon terminals allow signals to be communicated to these other cells. Neurons usually have one or two axons, but some neurons, like amacrine cells in the retina, do not contain any axons. This insulation is important as the axon from a human motor neuron can be as long as a meter—from the base of the spine to the toes.
The myelin sheath is not actually part of the neuron. Myelin is produced by glial cells. Along the axon there are periodic gaps in the myelin sheath.Explain the different structures and functions of the two main types of cells in the nervous system.
Neurons are the nerve cells; they contain a Fair Use Policy; Neuralgia is a connective tissue that supports the neurons. Their job is to protect the nervous system.
Biology Essay Writing Service Essays More Biology Essays. We can. There are two main types of cells in the nervous system. These two types are neurons and neuroglia.
A neuron is a nerve cell that transmits impulses of the nervous system. Three main parts make up a neuron: cell body, axon, and dendrite. The cell body of a neuron contains the nucleus and cytoplasm.
NERVOUS SYSTEM. The nervous system is composed of trillions of nerve cells, as well as other cells which maintain and support the nerve cells.
The scientific name for a nerve cell is a neuron. Neurons function electrically to create thought and action in our bodies. Without nerve cells, human life would not, and could not be.5/5(3). Nerve cells and neuroglia are the two chief types of cells in the nervous system.
The nerve cell is the existent nervus cell. The nerve cell is responsible for conveying the urges of the nervous system. Two Main Types Of Cells In Nervous System Biology Essay. There are two chief types of cells in the nervous system.
These two types are nerve cells and neuroglia. A nerve cell is a nervus cell that transmits urges of the nervous system. Three chief parts make up a nerve cell: cell organic structure, axon, and dendrite.
The Nervous System Essay. The Nervous System is comprised of two subdivisions. The central nervous system is the coordinating system for the body.