History[ edit ] Founding and early history[ edit ] Liu Chuanzhi founded Lenovo on 1 November with a group of ten engineers in Beijing withyuan.
Names[ edit ] The modern-day name Jinan literally means "south of the Ji" and refers to the old Ji River that had flowed to the north of the city until the middle of the 19th century. The Ji River disappeared in  when the Yellow River changed its course northwards and took over its bed.
Older texts spell the name as "Tsinan" Wade-Giles romanization or "Chi-nan". The name "Lixia" refers to the location of Jinan at the foot of Mount Li, which lies to the south of the city. Marco Polo gives a brief description of Jinan under the name "Chingli"  or "Chinangli".
Jinan is also referred to by the nickname "City of Springs" Chinese: Early history[ edit ] The area of present-day Jinan has been inhabited for more than years. One of the characteristic features of the Longshan culture are the intricate wheel-made pottery pieces it produced.
Most renowned is the black "egg-shell pottery" with wall thicknesses that can go below 1 millimeter. Portions of the wall still remain today and are accessible as open air museums. Bian Queaccording to the legend the earliest Chinese physician and active around BCE, is said to have been a native of present-day Changqing County.
Joseph Needhama British sinologistdescribes Zou as "The real founder of all Chinese scientific thought. Beginning in the 5th century CE, Buddhism flourished in Jinan.
The same period witnessed extensive construction of Buddhist sites in the southern counties of Licheng and Changqing such as the Lingyan Temple and the Thousand-Buddha Cliff. In particular, a large number of cave temples were established in the hills south of Jinan.
The Song rulers promoted Jinan to a superior prefecture in CE. Two of the most important poets of the Southern Song were both born in Jinan: Both poets witnessed a series of crushing defeats of the Song dynasty at the hands of the Jurchens who gained control over almost half of the Song territories and established the Jin dynasty in northern China.
After Jinan came under control of the Jin dynasty, both Li Qingzhao and Xin Qiji had to abandon their homes and reflected this experience in their works.
The rebellion was crushed in a decisive battle that was fought not far from Jinan in late March or early April CE. After losing of his troops in the battle, Li Tan retreated to Jinan to make his last stand.
After defections of his defenders had made his position untenable, Li Tan tried to commit suicide by drowning himself in Daming Lake. However, he was rescued by the Mongols in order to execute him by trampling him to death with their horses.
One of the most renowned artists of the Yuan dynasty, Zhao Mengfu — was appointed to the post of governor of Jinan in and spent three years in the city. Geographer Yu Qin — also served as an official in Jinan and authored his geography book Qi Cheng there.
Inthe northward shift of the Yellow River into a new bed close to the city triggered the modern expansion of Jinan. The new course of the Yellow River connected the city to the Grand Canal and regional waterways in northern Shandong and southern Hebei. A German concession area was established to the west of the historical city center in the vicinity of the Jinan Railway Station first established by the Germans.
The Jiaoji Qingdao—Jinan railway was built by the Germans against local resistance. The Jiaoji railway was completed inthree years after the Boxer Rebellion had been put down, and opened the city to foreign trade. Traded commodities included cottongrain, peanutsand tobacco.
Republican era[ edit ] Inafter the First World Warthe Japanese took over the German sphere of influence in Shandong, including control of the Jiaoji railway, and established a significant Japanese influence in Jinan.
Zhang was unpopular for his heavy-handed rule and in particular his heavy taxation. Japanese officers placed an order to slice off his nose and ears, and to gouge out his eyes and tongue. Sixteen other members of his negotiation team were also striped naked, recklessly whipped, dragged to the back-lawn, and slaughtered by machine guns on the same day.
When Chiang lectured a group of Chinese army cadets, he urged them to turn their energies to washing away the shame of Jinan, but to conceal their hatred until the last moment.The article you have been looking for has expired and is not longer available on our system.
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